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An International Educational Program

  • Nancy Sokol Green


Here’s how dyslexia symptoms may also be explained by retained primitive reflexes and incomplete lower brain development.

Problems with motor skills and handwriting can be signs of retained primitive reflexes. For example, in the early stage of hand development, the baby has difficulty releasing whatever she is holding. So not only will people with the Palmar Grasp Reflex need to override this reaction when writing, but they also won’t have acquired the kind of flexibility and control that comes with subsequent natural hand and finger development.

Problems with auditory discrimination can be signs of an underdeveloped midbrain and poor vestibular processing. For example, poor vestibular input can affect the child’s ability to distinguish the differences among sounds.

Problems judging space can be a sign of poor proprioceptive processing. When this sensory system is not functioning well, people may not move easily through their environment (e.g. they bump into furniture).

Likewise, our sense of direction depends on our knowledge of where we are in space. So, if people’s directional reference is faulty, they may write reversals.

People who make transpositions, omissions, and substitutions while reading and writing may be missing several automatic functions that are associated with a well-organized brain. For example, if eye tracking and eye teaming are poor (or nonexistent) as a result of incomplete lower brain development, it will be difficult to read and write with accuracy.

Difficulty sustaining attention can also be a sign of a brain that is mostly preoccupied with survival. Such people often appear highly intelligent and articulate, yet they have great difficulty when asked to read, write, spell, or do math.